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Single Molecule Study: Molecular Electronics & Single Molecular Biophysics and Mechanics
Welcome to the XU LAB at the University of Georgia!


U.S. Patent 8196218:  System and Methods for Controlling Properties of Nanojunction devices. 2012, F Chen, BQ Xu

2.  Book Chapters

  •  BQ Xu, K Wang, J Hamill, R Colvard, 2014 Modulate and control of detailed electron transport of single molecule, Molecular Electronics: An Experimental and Theoretical Approach, Chapter 4.  Pan Stanford Publishing Pte Ltd.
  •  GJ Chen, B Park, BQ Xu, 2013 Food Toxin Detection with Atomic Force Microscope,  ACS  Symposium Series: Advances in Applied Nanotechnology for AgricultureChapter 7, 125-143
  • HX He, S. Boussaad, BQ Xu and NJ Tao. 2003. Molecular and Ionic Adsorption onto Atomic-Scale Metal Wires, Nanowires and Nanobelts,Materials, Properties and Devices, Ed. Z.L. Wang, Kluwer Academic Press
  • HX He, YW Zhao, BQ Xu and NJ Tao. 2001. Electrochemical Potential Controlled Electron Transport in Conducting Polymer Nanowires, Quantum Confinement VI: Nanostructured Materials and Devices, ISBN 1-56677-352-0, Editor, M. Cahay, J. P. Leburton, D. J. Lockwood, S. Bandyopadhyay, J. S. Harris. Proceeding Volume 2001-19, the Electrochemical Society, INC. Page 20-2
  • NJ Tao, CZ Li, HX He, A Bogozi, BQ Xu, O Lam. 2001. Electrochemistry of STM Fabricated Metallic NanowriesScacing Probe Techniques for Materials Characterization at Nanometer Scale, ISBN 1-56677-302-4, Editer, D.C. Hansen, H. S. Issacs, K. Sieradzki, Page 148-162
 3.  Journal Paper


  • J Zhou, K Wang, BQ Xu, Y Dubi, 2017 Photoconductance from Exciton Binding in Molecular Junctions, J. Am. Chem. Soc., Article ASAP  (pdf)
  • A. Ismael, K Wang, A Vezzoli,  M Al-Khaykanee, H. Gallagher, G Lain, C Lambert, BQ Xu, R Nichols, S Higgins, 2017 Side Group-Mediated Mechanical Conductance Switching in Molecular Junctions, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.,56, 15378 –15382 (pdf)
  • Z Zhang, H Wang, X Wang, Y Li, B Song, O Bolarinwa, A Reese, T Zhang, X Wang, J Cai, B Xu, M Wang, C Liu, H Yang,  X Li, 2017 Super Snowflakes: Step-Wise Self-Assembly and Dynamic Exchange of Rhombus Star-Shaped Supramolecules, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 139(24), 8174-8185  (pdf)
JACS 2017-01
  • Z Jiang, Y Li, M Wang, B Son , K Wang, M Sun, D Liu, X Li, J  Yuan, M Chen, Y Guo, X Yang, T Zhang, CN Moorefield, GR  Newkome, B  Xu, X Li,  P Wang, 2017,  Self-Assembly of a Supramolecular Hexagram  and a Supramolecular Pentagram, Nat. Commun., 8, 15476 (pdf)
  • K Wang, BQ Xu, 2017, Modulation and Control of Charge Transport Through Single-Molecule Junctions, Top. Curr. Chem., 315:17. 10.1007/s41061-017-0105-z)


  • M Wang, K Wang, C wang,  M Huang, X Hao, M Shen, G Shi, Z Zhang, B Song, A Cisneros, M Song, BQ Xu, X Li, 2016 Self-assembly of Concentric Hexagons and hierarchical Self-Assembly of Superamolecular Metal-Organic Nanoribbons (SMON) at solid/Liquid Interface,  J. Am. Chem. Soc.,  138 (29), 9258-9268 (pdf)


  • Y Pan, B Wang, T Zhang,  Y Zhang, H Wang BQ Xu, 2016 Nonoscale Insights into Full-length Prion Protein Aggregation on Model Lipid Membranes, Chem. Commun,52, 8533-8536 (pdf)
  • Y Zhang, M Zhang, RA Reese, H Zhang, BQ Xu, 2016 Real-time single molecular study of a pretreated cellulose hydrolysis mode and individual enzyme movement,Biotechnol. Biofuels, 9, 85 (pdf)
  • K Wang,  BQ Xu, 2016 Electron tunneling through molecule-electrode contacts of single alkane molecular junctions: experimental determination and a practical barrier model,  Phys. Chem. Chem.Phys.,  18 9569-9576.(pdf)


  • B Wang, Z Lou, HQ Zhang, BQ Xu, 2016 Effect of the electrostatic surface  potentianl on the oligomerization of full-length human recombinant prion protein at single-molecule level  J. Chem. Phys.,144 114701 (pdf)


  • L Zhang,  BQ Xu, X Wang,  2016  Cholesterol Extraction from Cell Membrane by Graphene Nanosheets: A Computational Study  J. Phys. Chem. B, 120, 957-964 (pdf)

2016 JPCB

2016 RSC Adv


  • A Vezzoli,  G Lain, C Brooke, K Wang, C Lambert, BQ Xu, R Nichols, S Higgins, 2015 Gating of single molecule junction conductance by charge transfer complex formation Nanoscale, 7,18949-18955
  • Z Lou,  B Wang, CL Guo, K Wang, HQ Zhang, BQ Xu, 2015 Molecualr-level Insight of Early-stage Prion Protein   Aggregation  on Mica and God Surface by AFM Imaging and Molecular Simulation  Colloids Surf., B 135 371-378
  • BQ Xu, Y Dubi, 2015 Nagative differential conductance in molecular junctions: an overview of experiment and theory, J. Phys. Condens. Matt., 27 263202  (Invited topical review)
  • CL Guo, X Fan,  H Qiu, W Xiao, L Wang, BQ Xu, 2015 High-resolution probing heparan sulfate-antithrombin interaction on single endothelial cell surface:  Single-molecule AFM studies, Phys. Chem. Chem.Phys., 17 13301-13306 
  • B Sun,  M Wang,  Z Lou, M Huang, C Xu, X Li, L Chen, Y Yu, GL Davis, BQ Xu, HB Yang, XP Li, 2015 From Ring-in-Ring to Sphere-in-Spahere: Self-Assembly of Discrit 2D and 3D Archtitectures with Increasing Stability ,  J. Am. Chem. Soc., 137 (5) 1556-15640
  • B Wang, CL Guo, Z Lou,  BQ Xu, 2015 Following the Aggregation of Human Prion Protein on Au (111) Surface in Real-time, Chem. Commun., 51, 2088-2090
  • B Wang, Z Lou, B Park, YK Kwon, HQ Zhang, BQ Xu, 2015 Surface conformations of anti-ricin aptamer and its affinity to ricin determined by atomic force microscopy and surface plasmon resonance, Phys. Chem. Chem.Phys., 17 (1) 307-314 


  • K Wang,  J Hamill,  JF Zhou, BQ Xu, 2014 Mapping the details of contact effect of modulated Au-octanedithiol-Au break junction by force-conductance cross-correlation ,  J. Am. Chem. Soc.,136 (50), pp 17406–17409
  • K Wang, JF Zhou, J Hamill,  BQ Xu, 2014 Measurement and understanding of  single molecule junction retification caused by asymmetric contacts ,  J. Chem. Phys., 141, 054712/1-054712/7
  • MM Zhang, B Wang, BQ Xu, 2014 Mapping single molecular binding kinetics of carbohydrate-binding module with crystalline cellulose by atomic force microscopy recognition imaging,J. Phys. Chem. B.,  118 (24), 6714-1720
  • K Wang, J Hamill, JF Zhou, CL Guo,  BQ Xu, 2014 Measurement and control of detailed electronic transport properties of single molecule junction ,  Faraday Dicuss., 174 (1), 91-104 (DOI: 10.1039/C4FD00080C)
  • J Hodgkisss, EZ Colman, S Higgins, G Solomon, I Baldea, I Samuel, L Venkataraman, F Wudl, BQ Xu, R Venkatramani, H Ottoson, D Perepichka, U Lemmer, P Skabara, A Mount, D Bradley, Molecular Electronics: General Discussion ,  Faraday Dicuss., 174, 125-151  (DOI: 10.1039/C4FD90049A)
  • S Higgins, J Hodgkisss, N Plank, L Torsi, P Cowper, G Malliaras, Y Braeken, N Laurand,I Samuel, A Pomorska,  F Wudl, BQ Xu, U Lemmer, D Perepichka,  A Mount, L Dennany, D Bradley, K Melzer, Organic bioelectronics: General Discussion ,  Faraday Dicuss., 174, 413-428  (DOI: 10.1039/C4FD90048K)
  • J Hodgkisss, G Conboy, G Hutchings, S Higgins, I Galbraith, N Findlay, R Taylor, M Salle, S Zhang, G Frey, I Baldea, I Samuel, B Ebenhoch,  F Wudl, A Turak, BQ Xu, E Angioni, R Venkatramani, U Lemmer, D Perepichka,  A Kanibolotsky, EZ Colman, D Bradley, I McCulloch, J McDouall, S Ponomarenko, J Nelson, JS Kim,  Organic photovoltaics and energy: General Discussion ,  Faraday Dicuss., 174, 341-355 (DOI: 10.1039/C4FD90050B)
  • K Wang, J Hamill, B Wang, CL Guo, S Jiang, Z Huang, BQ Xu, 2014 Structure determined charge transport in single DNA molecule break junctions,  Chem. Sci., 5 (9) 3425-3431 
  • B Wang, B Park, YK Kwon, BQ Xu, 2014 Determining the Elastic Properties of Aptamer-Ricin Single Molecule Mutiple Pathway Intercations, Appl. Phys. Lett.  104, 193702/1-193702/4
  • J Hamill, K Wang, BQ Xu, 2014 Characterizing molecular junctions through MCBJ approach, Reports in Electrochemistry, 4: 1-11 (Invited Review)
  • J Hamill, K Wang, BQ Xu, 2014 Force and conductance molecular junctions with time series crosscorrelation,  Nanoscale, 6 (11), 5657-5661
  • Y Zhang, BQ Xu, W Zhou, 2014 On a novel mechanistic model fror simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose considering morphology,  Biotechnol. Bioeng. 111. 1767-1781 
  • B Wang, BQ Xu, 2014 Transition Model for ricin-aptamer interactions with multiple pathways and energy barriers,  Phys. Rev. E. 89, 022720(1)-022720(10)
  • C Wang, X Hao, C. Guor, B Xu, E Tan, Y Zhang, Y Yu, Z Li, M. Song, X Li, 2014 Self-assembly of Giant Supramolecular Cubes with Terpyridine Ligands as Vertices and Metals on Edges,Chem. Sci. 5, 1221-1226


  • MM Zhang, GJ Chen, G. Kumar, BQ Xu, 2013 Mapping out the structural changes of natural and pretreated plant cell wall surfaces by atomic force microscopy single molecular recognition  imaging, Biotechnol. Biofuels, 6, 147
  • ZP Zhen, W Tang, Cl Guo, HW Chen, X Lin, G Liu, BW Fei, XY Chen, BQ Xu, J Xie 2013 Ferritin nanocages to encapsulate and deliver photosensitizers for efficient photodynamic therapy against cancer, ACS Nano, 7 (8), 6988-6996
  • JF Zhou, S Samanta, CL Guo, J Locklin, BQ Xu, 2013 Measurements of contact specific low-bias negative differential resistance of single metalorganic molecular junctions, Nanoscale, 3,  5715-5719
  • MM Zhang, B Wang, BQ Xu, 2013 Measurements of Single Molecular Affinity  Interacctions between Carbohydrate-Binding Module Crystalline Cellulose Fibrils, Phys. Chem. Chem.Phys., 15(17), 6508-6515


  • Cl Guo, B Wang,LC Wang, BQ Xu, 2012 Structural Basis of Single Molecular Heparin-FX06 Interaction Revealed by SPM Measurements and Molecular Simulations, Chem. Commun., 48, 12222–12224
  • MM Zhang, SC Wu, W Zhou, BQ Xu, 2012 Imaging and Measuring Single-Molecule Intercation between a Carbohydrate-Binding Module and Natural Plant Cell Wall Cellulose,   J. Phys. Chem. B., 116, 9949-9956
  • P. Negri, GJ Chen, A Kage, A Nitsche, D Naumann, BQ Xu, R A Dluhy, 2012 Direct Optical Detection of Viral Nucleoprotein Binding to an Anti-Influenza Aptamer, Anal. Chem. 84 (13) 5501-5508 
  • B. Wang, Cl Guo, MM Zhang, B Park, BQ Xu, 2012 High Resolution Single-Molecule Recognition Imaging of the Molecular Details of Ricin-Aptamer Interaction, J. Phys. Chem. B., 116, 5316-5322 
  • JF Zhou, CL Guo, BQ Xu, 2012 Electron transport properties of single molecular junctions under mechanical modulations, J. Phys. Condens. Matt. 24, 164029/1-164029/9 
  • J. Guo , GJ Chen, XH Ning, XR Li, JF Zhou, A Jagielska, BQ Xu, GJ Boons, 2012 A Chemo-Mechanical Tweezer for Single Molecular Characterization of Soft Materials, Chem. Eur, J. 18, 4568-4574
  • JX Nie, L Guo, KM Li, YH Wang, GJ Chen, LH Li, HB Chen, F Deng, X Jiang, T Zhang, L Huang6, C Faraco, DG Zhang, C Guo, PTYap, XT Hu, G Li, JL Lv, YX Yuan, DJ Zhu, JWi Han, D Sabatinelli, Q Zhao, LS Miller, BQ Xu, P Shen, S Platt, DG Shen, XP Hu, TM Liu, 2012 Axonal Fiber Terminations Concentrate on Gyri Cerebral Cortex, 22(12), 2831-2839 (Cover Highlight)
  • L. Yan , YB Zheng, F Zhao, SJ Li, XF Gao, BQ Xu, PS Weiss, Yuliang Zhao,2012 Chemistry and physics of a single atomic layer: strategies and challenges for functionalization of grapheme and graphene-based materials,Chem. Soc. Rev. 41, 97–114 (Critical Review)
  • B. Wang, Cl Guo, GJ Chen, B Park, BQ Xu, 2012 Following aptamer–ricin specific binding by single molecule recognition and force spectroscopy measurements, Chem. Commun., 48, 1644–1646 (Backcover Highlighted)


  • JF Zhou , BQ Xu, 2011. Determining contact potential barrier effects on electronic transport in singel molecular junctions, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4): 042104/1-042104/3
  • J. Sheng, H Abdalla, W Zhang, JF Zhou, BQ Xu, AS Soares, Z Huang, 2011. Sythesis, Structure and Imaging of Oligodeoxyribonucleotide with Tellurium-derivatized Nucleobase Derivatization, Nucleic Acid Res. 39, 3962-3971
  • GJ Chen, NT Ni, JF Zhou, YJ Chuang,BH Wang, ZW Pan, BQ Xu. 2011. Fibrinogen Clot Induced by Gold-nanoparticle in Vitro, J. Nanosci. Nanotechno., 11, 74-81.


  • J. Guo, Chen GJ, XH Ning, MA Wolfert, XR Li, BQ Xu, GJ Boons, 2010. Surface Modification of Polymeric Micelles by Strain-Promoted Alkyne-Azide Cycloadditions, Chem. Eur. J. 16 , 13360-13366
  • JF Zhou, BQ Xu, 2010. Recent Patents of nanopore DNA Sequencing Technology: Progress and Challenges, Recent Pat. Gene Seq. 4 (3), 192-201
  • JF Zhou, GJ Chen, BQ Xu. 2010. Probing the Molecule-Electrode Interface of Single-Molecule Junctions by Controllable Mechanical ModulationsJ. Phys. Chem. C., 114(18), 8587-8592
  • GJ Chen, NT Ni, BH Wang, BQ Xu. 2010. Fibrinogen Nanofibril Growth and Self-Assembly on Au (1,1,1) Surface in the Absence of Thrombin, ChemPhysChem, 11 (3), 565-568
  • F Chen, JF Zhou, GJ Chen, BQ Xu. 2010. A Novel Highly-integrated SPM System for Single Molecule StudiesIEEE Sensors Journal, 10(3), 485-491


  • GJ Chen, JF Zhou, B Park, BQ Xu. 2009. Single Ricin Detection by Atomic Force Microscopy Chemomechanical MappingAppl. Phys. Lett. 95(4): 043103/1-043103/3 (Selected for the August 1, 2009 issue of Virtual Journal of Biological Physics Research)
  • Lina Wang, Ze-Zhi Wu, Bingqian Xu, Yiping Zhao, William S Kisaalita. 2009. SU-8 microstructure for quasi-three-dimensional cell-based biosensingSensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 140(2), 349-355
  • JF Zhou, F Chen, BQ Xu. 2009. Fabrication and electronic characterization of single molecular junction devices: A comprehensive approachJ AM CHEM SOC 131 (30): 10439-10446
  • GJ Chen, XH Ning, B Park, GJ Boons, BQ Xu. 2009. Simple, clickable protocol for AFM tip modification and its application for trace ricin detection by recognition imagingLangmuir, 25, 2860-2864
  • B Liu, XY Li, BL Li, BQ Xu, YL Zhao. 2009. Carbon Nanotube Based Artificial Water Channel Protein: Membrane Perturbation and Water TransportationNano Lett. 9(4) 1491-1495 (Featured in Nature, see Additional Information) Additional Information


  • HQ Sun, Y Bai, HJ Liu, WQ Jin, NP Xu, GJ Chen, BQ Xu. 2008. Mechanism of Nitrogen-Concentration Dependence on pH Value: Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Nitrogen-Doped TiO2J. Phys. Chem. C, 112(34) 13304 - 13309


  • BQ Xu. 2007. Modulating the Conductance of a Au-octanedithiol-Au Molecular JunctionSmall, 3 (12) 2061-2065


  • ZF Huang, BQ Xu, YC Chen, M Di Ventra and NJ Tao. 2006. Measurement of Current-Induced Local Heating in a Single Molecule JunctionNano Letters, 6 (6) 1240-1244
  • H Yan and BQ Xu. 2006. Towards Rapid DNA Sequencing: Detecting Single-Stranded DNA with a Solid-State NanoporeSmall 2(3) 310-312, INVITED HIGHLIGHT
  • XL Li, J He, Hihath J, BQ Xu, S.M Lindsay and NJ Tao. 2006. Conductance of Single Alkanedithiols: Conduction Mechanism and Effect of Molecule-Electrode ContactsJ AM CHEM SOC 128(6): 2135 -2141
  • XL Li, BQ Xu, XY Xiao, XM Yang, L Zang and NJ Tao. 2006. Controlling Charge Transport in Single Molecules Using Electrochemical GateFaraday Discussions 131, 111-120, INVITED


  • J Hihath, BQ Xu, PM Zhang and NJ Tao. 2005. Study of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms via Electrical Conductance Measurements, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16979-16983
  • BQ Xu, XL Li, XY Xiao, H Sakaguchi and NJ Tao. 2005. Electromechanical and Conductance Switching Properties of Single Oligothiophene MoleculesNano Letters, 5(7) 1491-1495
  • BQ Xu, XY Xiao, XM Yang, L Zang and NJ Tao. 2005. Large Gate Modulation in Current of a Room Temperature Single Molecule TransistorJ AM CHEM SOC 127(8): 2386-2387
  • XL Li, BQ Xu, XY Xiao, Hihath J and NJ Tao. 2005. Conductance of single alkanedithiols: Conduction mechanism and effect of molecule-electrode contacts, Japanese Journal of Applied physics,44 (7B): 5344-5347
  • BQ Xu, PM Zhang, XL Li and NJ Tao. 2004. Direct Conductance Measurement of Single DNA Molecules in Aqueous Solution, Nano Letters, 4(6) 1105-1108
  • XY Xiao, BQ Xu and NJ Tao. 2004. Measurement of Single Molecule Conductance: Benzenedithiol and BenzenedimethanethiolNano Letters 4(2) 267-271
  • XY Xiao, BQ Xu and NJ Tao. 2004. Conductance Titration of Single-Peptide Molecules, J AM CHEM SOC 126 (17): 5370-5371
  • XY Xiao, BQ Xu and NJ Tao. 2004. Metal Ion Binding Induced Changes in Single Peptide Conductance, ANGEW.CHEM. 116(45) 6274-6278
  • NJ Tao, BQ Xu and XY Xiao. 2004. Measurement of electron transport and mechanical properties of single moleculesIEEE 62nd DRC. Conference Digest, 1, 202-203
  • BQ Xu and NJ Tao. 2003. Measurement of single-molecule resistance by repeated formation of molecular junctionsSCIENCE 301 (5637): 1221-1223
  • BQ Xu, HX He, S Boussaad and NJ Tao. 2003. Electrochemical properties of atomic-scale metal wiresElectrochimica Acta 48 3085-3091
  • BQ Xu, XY Xiao and NJ Tao. 2003. Measurement of Electromechanical Properties of Single-Molecule JunctionsJ AM CHEM SOC 125(52) 16164 - 16165
  • S Boussaad, BQ Xu, LA Nagahara, I Amlani, W Schmickler, R Tsui, and NJ Tao. 2003. Discrete tunneling current fluctuations in metal-water-metal tunnel junctions, J CHEM PHYS 118 (19): 8891-8897
  • XL Li, HX He, BQ Xu, XY Xiao, LA Nagahara, I Amlani, R Tsui, T Ren and NJ Tao. 2003. Measurement of Electron Transport Properties of Electrochemically and Mechanically Molecular JunctionsSUR. SCI 573(1) 1-10
  • BQ Xu, HX HX and NJ Tao. 2002. Controlling the Conductance of Atomically Thin Metal Wires with Electrochemical PotentialJ AM CHEM SOC 124 (45): 13568-13575
  • HX He, S Boussaad , BQ Xu, CZ Li and NJ Tao. 2002. Electrochemical Fabrication of Atomically Thin Metallic Wires and Molecular-Scale GapsJ ELECTROANAL CHEM 522 (2): 167-172 invited review
  • HX He, YW Zhao, BQ Xu and NJ Tao. 2001. Electrochemical Potential Controlled Electron Transport in Conducting Polymer Nanowires, Quantum Confinement VI: Nanostructured Materials and Devices, ISBN 1-56677-352-0, Editor, M. Cahay, J. P. Leburton, D. J. Lockwood, S. Bandyopadhyay, J. S. Harris. Proceeding Volume 2001-19, the Electrochemical Society, INC. Page 20-22
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